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Sprouting / Germination
Soak whole grams, peas or cereals in water and then tie them in a muslin cloath and leave them out to sprout.

Advantages
1. Makes it easily digestible
2. Reduces flatulence
3. Decreases cooking time
4. Water soluble vitamins are increased
5. Availability of proteins increased
6. Increases fibre

Fermentation
Fermentation is a process of breaking down complex matter to simpler ones. Fermented foods are more nutritious like idli batter, dholka batter, curds, etc.

Advantages

1. Texture and taste improves
2. Quality of protein available is improved
3. Increase in amount of B vitamins
4. Increased shelf life
5. They are easily digestible

Grinding
It includes both wet and dry grinding. Use to make masala’s, chutneys, batter and flours.

Advantages

1. It facilitates fermentation
2. Facilitates blending of flavors
3. Enhancement of taste and flavour
4. Helpful in gravy preparations

Disadvantages

1. Increased chances of infestation
2. Flavour is lost easily if not stored properly
3. Vitamin C can be reduced due to oxidation

Drying
Drying fresh foodstuff helps remove moisture, thus prolong shelf life.

Advantages

1. Increases shelf life
2. Dried foods grind easily
3. Availability of seasonal vegetables throughout the year

Simmering
Foods are cooked in a pan with a well fitted lid at a temperature just below boiling point of the liquid they are immersed in. the foods cooks for longer and helps absorb all the flavours. The use of oil is also very low in this technique.

Advantages

1. Foods are cooked completely without burning or scorching
2. Losses due to leaching are reduced
3. Oil used is very minimal

Disadvantages

1. It is time and fuel consuming

Poaching
This involves cooking in the minimum amount of liquid at a temperature below boiling point. Foods generally poached are eggs, fish and fruits.

Advantages

1. Very quick method of cooking
2. Easily digestible since no fat is used

Disadvantages

1. Water soluble nutrients may be leached into water
2. its bland to taste, need to be seasoned after cooking

Stewing
This is a gentle method of cooking in a pan with a tight fitting lid, using small quantity of water that covers only half the food. The food is cooked by steam created in the pan. The liquid is then brought to boiling point and then simmered. This method can be used to cook meat, legumes, root vegetables.

Advantages

1. Loss of nutrients does not take place
2. Use of oil or fat is very low
3. Flavour is retained, the dish is attractive and nutritious too

Disadvantages

1. The process is time consuming

Steaming
The method requires food to be cooked in steam. The steam can be created by boiling water vigorously and the food is surrounded by the steam created but does not touch the water. It can be wet steaming like in the case of idli where the food is directly in contact with the steam.

Dry steaming is the one where a double boiler is used where an outer vessel has water and the inner vessel has the food. Foods cooked this way are sauces and custards

Waterless steaming is when the food is wrapped in an aluminium foil. When food is steamed, the cooked food retains all the natural flavours.

Advantages

1. Nutritive value is maintained as food is cooked quickly
2. Food is low in fat
3. Easily digestible
4. Scorching or burning of food never occurs
5. Texture of the food is better its light and fluffy
6. Steamed foods have great flavour

Pressure cooking
The food is cooked in a special cooker. The steam is trapped under pressure and cooks food very fast.

Advantages

1. It saves time
2. Different items can be cooked at the same time saving fuel
3. Nutrient and flavour loss is minimal
4. Food is cooked thoroughly without scorching or burning

Disadvantages
1. Requires an equipment
2. Sometimes the food may be undesirably soft

Grilling / Broiling
Grilling consists of placing food below or above or in between a red hot surface. When under the heater the food is heated by radiation only. This results in browning the food. As heating is mostly superficial, grilled foods are usually reversed or rotated.

Advantages

1. Food is flavourful and nutritious
2. Use of fat is minimal

Pan broiling or broiling
When food is cooked uncovered on heated metal or frying pan the method is known as pan broiling.

Advantages

1. Improves color, flavour and texture
2. Reduced the moisture in the food and improves keeping quality
3. it is a quick cooking method
4. Uses little or no fat

Disadvantages

1. Constant attention is required
2. Loss of certain nutrients occurs

Baking
Here food gets cooked by hot air. Foods baked are usually brown and crisp on the outside and soft and porous in the centre. The oven is preheated to an appropriate temperature food is then put in the oven and cooked for a specific time.

Advantages

1. Flavour and texture are improved
2. Variety of dishes can be made
3. Uniform and bulk cooking can be done

Sautéing
This method involves just greasing the base of the pan and the food is tossed in and stirred occasionally so it comes in touch with the base of the pan and gets cooked evenly.

Advantages

1. Food has flavour and texture
2. Nutrient loss is low
3. Use of fat is minimal

Shallow frying
Here food is cooked in a larger amount of fat but it does not cover the food. This is the way parathas, tikkis, etc are cooked.

Advantages

1. Texture and Flavour of food is improved

Deep frying
Food is immersed in hot oil and cooked uniformly on all sides.

Advantages

1. Taste is improved along with a good texture
2. It’s a fast method of cooking

Disadvantages

1. Food is very high in calories and fat
2. Fried food takes a long time to digest
3. Using reused oil is harmful to health

Braising
Braising is a combined method of roasting and stewing in a pan with a tight fitted lid. The food is roasted and they cooked at almost boiling temperature.

Advantages

1. Food has a good flavour and texture
2. The fat usage is minimal

Microwave cooking
Food is cooked in an apparatus called the microwave in a electromagnetic field. The waves make the water content of food boils thus heat/ cook the food

Advantages

1. Food is cooked quickly
2. Flavour and texture does not change when food is reheated in the microwave
3. Foods cooked uniformly
4. Color of the fruits and vegetables is preserved
5. Loss of nutrients is minimized
 
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