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Diabetes Mellitus
Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by high blood glucose concentration resulting due to defects in insulin secretion, action or both. This results in aberrations in carbohydrate, protein and fat metabolism.

There is an emerging global epidemic of diabetes that can be traced back to rapid increases in overweight, obesity and physical inactivity. Total deaths from diabetes are projected to rise by more than 50% in the next 10 years. Most notably, they are projected to increase by over 80% in upper-middle income countries. Type 2 diabetes is much more common than type 1 diabetes, and accounts for around 90% of all diabetes worldwide. Lack of awareness about diabetes, combined with insufficient access to health services, can lead to complications such as blindness, amputation and kidney failure.

Factors that make you prone to Diabetes

  1. Heredity
  2. Age
  3.  Environmental factors
  4.  Obesity especially abdominal fat
  5.  Physical Activity

Types

  1.  Type 1 Insulin dependent Diabetes Mellitus (IDDM))
  2.  Type 2 Non Insulin dependent Diabetes Mellitus (NIDDM)
  3.  Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM)
  4.  Impaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT)
Type 2 diabetes is much more common than type 1 diabetes, and accounts for around 90% of all diabetes worldwide. Type two diabetes that occurs due dietary and Lifestyle malpractices and is preventable.
Symptoms:
  • Hyperglycemia (High blood sugar)
  • Polydipsia (Excessive thirst)
  • Polyuria (Excessive Urination especially at night)
  • Significant Weight Loss / Gain
Abnormal pattern of insulin secretion and action
Decreased cellular uptake of glucose and increased PP glucose
Increased release of glucose by liver (gluconeogenesis)
 
Medical Management Nutritional Management

  • Diagnosis
  • Medication (Sulfonylureas, biguanides, insulin, etc)
  • Regular Blood Glucose monitoring (glycated hemoglobin, microalbuminuria, etc.)


  • Lifestyle strategies ( food & physical activity)
  • Nutrition Health Education
  • Energy restriction -Weight loss
  • Regular Blood Glucose monitoring-Required adjustments in diet & drugs
 
Uncontrolled diabetes leads to

High cholesterol and triglycerides

Heart disease

Disorders of the eye

Kidney disease

Problems of the nervous system
body
 
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