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Food Pyramid
These days a wealth of knowledge on nutrition is available at you fingertips. Newspapers, Magazines, health programs cover all aspects of nutrition from what is wrong, what is right, what are nutrients, etc. Everyone has an opinion on what you should you should be eating. You now know that it is important to eat, but with all these information surrounding us it is becoming increasingly difficult to sort though these food choices. This section on food would help you to make your food choices easier and educate you on how to make your meals nutritionally balanced, because we do not know food by nutrients but by the regularly consumed items.

So to simplify food choices foods that share similar nutritional properties have been grouped together to form the following food groups.
Food Groups Examples Nutrients Provided
Cereals and its products

Wheat, Rice, Ragi, Maize, Bajra, Jowar, Barley, Rice Flakes (Poha), Puffed Rice (Mumra), Bread, Atta Bread, Pasta, etc.

Energy, Protein, Invisible Fat, Vit B1, Vit B2, Folic acid, Iron, Fibre.

Vegetables
Fruits

Green leafy vegetables

Roots and Tubers, and other vegetables



Guava, Orange, Mausambi, Watermelon, Papaya, Pomegranate

Carotenoids,  Vit B2, Folic Acid, Calcium, Iron, Fibre.
Carotenoids, Folic Acid, Calcium, Fibre.



Carotenoids, Vit C, Vit B2, Folic acid, Iron, Fibre.

Milk and its products

Milk, Curd, Paneer, Cheese

Energy, Protein, Fat, Calcium.

Pulses and Legumes
Nuts and Oilseeds

Bengal gram, Green Gram ( All forms of dal), Rajmah, Peas, Soyabean and its products





Peanuts, Walnuts, Almonds, Gingelly seeds, Niger seeds

Energy, Protein, Invisible Fat, Vit B1, Vit B2, Folic acid, Calcium, Iron, Fibre.





Energy, Protein, Fat especially monounsaturated fats and Essential fatty acids, Fibre.

Meat, Fish Poultry

Egg, Chicken, Fish, Mutton, Sea Food, Organ meat

Energy, Protein, Fat, Iron, Calcium.

Fats
Sugars

Cooking oils, Butter, Ghee





Sugar, Jaggery, honey

Energy, Fat, Essential fatty acids, Fat soluble vitamins.




Energy

Food Pyramid

The key to a balanced diet is not to omit any food groups but to balance what you eat by consuming a variety of foods from the different food groups in the right proportions for good health. Now that you are aware of the various food groups the next step towards a healthy body is getting the proportions right for which we follow a simple guide which is the food pyramid.
Food Pyramid
 
Nine tips for eating right:
1. Food consumed should be balanced and include a lot of varieties and consumed in moderation
2. Base meals on starchy foods
3. Include as many food groups in a meal as possible to make the meal nutritionally complete
4. Eat lots of fruit and vegetables
5. Eat lean meat like chicken, fish. Avoid red meat like mutton, beef
6. Cut down on simple sugars and fats especially saturated fat
7. Try to eat less salt - no more than 6g a day
8. Drink plenty of water
9. Don't skip breakfast
Nutrient Content of Food groups based on individual Portion Size

Food Groups

Portion

Energy
kcal

Protein
g

Carbohydrate
g

Fat
g

Cereals & Millets

30 g

100

3.0

20

0.8

Pulses & Legumes

30 g

100

6.0

15

0.7

Egg

50 g

85

7.0

-

7.0

Meat/Chicken/Fish

40 g

100

9.0

-

7.0

Milk

100 ml

70

3.0

5

3.0

Roots and Tubers

100 g

80

1.3

19

0.2

Green Leafy Vegetables

100 g

45

3.6

-

0.4

Other vegetables

100 g

30

1.7

-

0.2

Fruits

100 g

40

-

10

-

Sugars

5 g

20

-

5

-

Fats & Oils (visible)

5 g

45

-

-

5

Balanced Diet : Number of Portions and Portion Size

 

Portion Requirement of each Food Group ( As per Lifecycle)

Cereals & Millets

Pulses & Legumes

Milk

Vegetables

Fruits

Sugars

Fats & Oils (Visible)

Portion size

30 g

30 g

100 ml

100g

100g

5 g

5 g

Man

Sedentary

14

2

3

4 – 5

1 – 2

5

4

Moderate

16

3

3

4 – 5

1 – 2

8

7

Heavy

23

3

3

4 – 5

1 – 2

11

11

Woman

Sedentary

10

2

3

4 – 5

1 – 2

4

4

Moderate

12

2.5

3

4 – 5

1 – 2

5

6

Heavy

16

3

3

4 – 5

1 – 2

9

8

Infants  (6 – 12 months)

1.5

0.5

5*

1

1

5

2

Children ( 1 – 3 years)

4

1

5

1.5

1

5

4

Children ( 4 – 7 years)

7

1.5

5

2

1

6

5

Children ( 7 – 9 years)

9

2

5

3

1

6

5

10 – 12 years

Girls

9

2

5

3

1 – 2

6

5

Boys

11

2

5

3

1 – 2

7

5

13 – 18 years

Girls

10

2

5

3

1 – 2

6

5

Boys

14

2

5

4

1 – 2

7

5

* Indicates Top Milk.
For Non vegetarians substitute one pulse portion with one portion of Meat/Fish/Poultry
For infants introduce egg/ meat/ chicken/ fish when they are 9 months of age
 
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