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A general definition of hypertension is systolic pressure 140 mmHg or higher and diastolic of 90 mmHg or higher.

Blood Pressure = Cardiac Output × Peripheral Resistance

Thus the diameter of the blood vessels markedly affects blood flow. When diameter is decreased as in atherosclerosis, resistance and blood pressure increases. Conversely when the diameter increases as in vasodialator therapy resistance decreases and blood pressure is reduced.
High blood pressure is sometimes called the ‘silent killer’ because it usually has no noticeable warning signs or symptoms until other serious problems arise; therefore, many people do not know that they have it. All persons, including children, can develop high blood pressure.

However, high blood pressure is easily detectable and usually can be controlled. Having high blood pressure increases one’s chance for developing heart disease, a stroke, and other serious conditions.

Mild Hypertension:
DBP = 90 – 104 mmHg.
Treatment based on weight loss, sodium restriction and behavioural techniques

Mild Hypertension:
DBP = 105 – 119 mmHg.
Treatment involves nutritional therapy supported by drugs such as ß blockers.

Homeostatic control of blood pressure is maintained by:
  • Sympathetic nervous system for (short term control)
  • Kidney (long term control) 
When these systems falter hypertensions develop:
  • Hyperactive SNS system
  • A stimulated Rennin Angiotensin system
  • Low Potassium Diet
  • Use of certain drugs like cyclosporine
  • Obesity (esp. abdominal obesity)
  • Cardiovascular diseases
  • Kidney diseases
  • Tumor in brain or adrenal gland
  • Diseases of Ovaries
  • Endocrinal disorders ( hyperthyrodism & pitutary gland disorder )
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