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Minerals
Minerals constitute 4 % of our body weight and are essential to maintain good health and promote proper metabolism and various other bodily functions in humans. Minerals are classified as per daily requirements. A varied and balanced diet provides all essential minerals, supplements are only advised if necessary. A number of factors influence mineral absorption and metabolism. The absorption rates are higher if there is a mineral deficiency or in the presence or absence of certain nutrients. Mineral intake should be as per the Recommended Dietary Allowance.
NAME SOURCES FUNCTIONS DEFICIENCY & SYMPTOMS
MACROMINERALS
Calcium
Calcium
Milk, Milk products, sardines, oysters, Green leafy vegetables, tofu
  • Essential for teeth and bones
  • Required for muscle and nerve functions
  • Required for blood clotting
  • Regulates blood pressure
  • Rickets
  • Osteopenia
  • Osteoporosis
Phosphorus
Phosphorous
Milk, cheese, egg yolk, fish, poultry, whole grains
  • Helps maintain strong bones and teeth
  • Component of many enzymes
  • Essential for proper metabolism
  • Deficiency is rare
Magnesium
Magnesium
Whole grain cereals, tofu, nuts, meat, milk, green vegetables, legumes and chocolates
  • Stimulates bone growth
  • Necessary for muscle function and metabolism
  • Deficiency is rare
ELECTROLYTES
Sodium
Sodium
Salt, fruits, vegetables, cereals, legumes
  • With potassium regulates body fluid balance
  • Promotes proper muscle function
  • Deficiency is rare
  • Hyponatremia
Potassium
Potassium
Fruits, vegetables, cereals, legumes
  • With sodium regulates body fluid balance
  • Promotes proper muscle function
  • Irregular heart beat, muscle weakness & irritablity
  • Hypokalemia

MICROMINERALS

Iron
Iron
Liver, meat, egg yolk, legumes, whole or enriched grains, dark green vegetables
  • Required to make hemoglobin that is the oxygen carrier in the body
  • Anemia
Zinc
Zinc
Seafood, liver, legumes, milk, wheat bran
  • Part of many enzymes and insulin
  • Important for nucleic acid metabolism
  • Essential for growth and reproduction
  • Loss of hair
  • Loss of appetite
  • Increased infection
  • Fatigue
Selenium
Selenium
Poultry, seafood, whole grain products, onions, garlic, mushroom, nuts, organ meats
  • Antioxidant, works with Vitamin E to protect cell membranes from oxidative damage
  • Deficiency is rare
Chromium
Chromium
Yeast, whole grain products, liver, cheese, chicken, mushroom, mollases
  • Works with insulin to metabolize glucose
  • Deficiency is rare
Iodine
Zinc
Iodized salt, seafood, foods grown in iodine rich soil
  • Required for making thyroid hormones
  • Goiter
  • Mental retardation in infants when mother has insufficient intake
 
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